Knowledge of Regulation of Photosynthesis in Outdoor Microalgae Cultures Is Essential for the Optimization of Biomass Productivity
Perin G, Gambaro F, Morosinotto T. Front Plant Sci. 2022 Apr 4;13:846496. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2022.846496
Microalgae represent a sustainable source of biomass that can be exploited for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic applications, as well as for food, feed, chemicals, and energy. To make microalgae applications economically competitive and maximize their positive environmental impact, it is however necessary to optimize productivity when cultivated at a large scale. Independently from the final product, this objective requires the optimization of biomass productivity and thus of microalgae ability to exploit light for CO2 fixation. Light is a highly variable environmental parameter, continuously changing depending on seasons, time of the day, and weather conditions. In microalgae large scale cultures, cell self-shading causes inhomogeneity in light distribution and, because of mixing, cells move between different parts of the culture, experiencing abrupt changes in light exposure. Microalgae evolved multiple regulatory mechanisms to deal with dynamic light conditions that, however, are not adapted to respond to the complex mixture of natural and artificial fluctuations found in large-scale cultures, which can thus drive to oversaturation of the photosynthetic machinery, leading to consequent oxidative stress. In this work, the present knowledge on the regulation of photosynthesis and its implications for the maximization of microalgae biomass productivity are discussed. Fast mechanisms of regulations, such as Non-Photochemical-Quenching and cyclic electron flow, are seminal to respond to sudden fluctuations of light intensity. However, they are less effective especially in the 1–100 s time range, where light fluctuations were shown to have the strongest negative impact on biomass productivity. On the longer term, microalgae modulate the composition and activity of the photosynthetic apparatus to environmental conditions, an acclimation response activated also in cultures outdoors. While regulation of photosynthesis has been investigated mainly in controlled lab-scale conditions so far, these mechanisms are highly impactful also in cultures outdoors, suggesting that the integration of detailed knowledge from microalgae large-scale cultivation is essential to drive more effective efforts to optimize biomass productivity.
A synthetic C4 shuttle via the β-hydroxyaspartate cycle in C3 plants.
Roell MS, Schada von Borzykowski L, Westhoff P, Plett A, Paczia N, Claus P, Urte S, Erb TJ, Weber APM. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 May 25;118(21):e2022307118. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2022307118.
Plants depend on the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) for CO2 fixation. However, especially in C3 plants, photosynthetic yield is reduced by formation of 2-phosphoglycolate, a toxic oxygenation product of Rubisco, which needs to be recycled in a high-flux-demanding metabolic process called photorespiration. Canonical photorespiration dissipates energy and causes carbon and nitrogen losses. Reducing photorespiration through carbon-concentrating mechanisms, such as C4 photosynthesis, or bypassing photorespiration through metabolic engineering is expected to improve plant growth and yield. The β-hydroxyaspartate cycle (BHAC) is a recently described microbial pathway that converts glyoxylate, a metabolite of plant photorespiration, into oxaloacetate in a highly efficient carbon-, nitrogen-, and energy-conserving manner. Here, we engineered a functional BHAC in plant peroxisomes to create a photorespiratory bypass that is independent of 3-phosphoglycerate regeneration or decarboxylation of photorespiratory precursors. While efficient oxaloacetate conversion in Arabidopsis thaliana still masks the full potential of the BHAC, nitrogen conservation and accumulation of signature C4 metabolites demonstrate the proof of principle, opening the door to engineering a photorespiration-dependent synthetic carbon-concentrating mechanism in C3 plants.